|2.||Special finishes for natural fibers||
|3.||Special finishes for synthetic fibers||
The fact which is most of the time ignored is that almost every step in finishing a fabric has a potential for damaging the environment. The textile industry is acutely aware of the situation and has become proactive to safeguard the environment. Finishing facilities incorporate systems for air pollution control, pollution prevention, and hazardous waste disposal. These systems minimize discharge into any part of the environment (air, land or waste).
Finishes requires large amount of usage of water and energy. In the 1970s it was not unusual for a large finishing facility to use more than 2 million gallons of water daily. Water use has decreased but it continues to be used to dissolve chemicals and to remove waste and soil from the system. The quality of the water supply is a growing concern. Foam finishing and other less water intensive process are increasing in importance. Better and more efficient means of extracting water from fabrics prior to drying and heat recovery systems minimize energy use.
Finishing uses quantity of potentially hazardous chemicals. There are restrictions on the discharge of water with high biological oxygen demand (BOD), such as sizing agent, and high chemical oxygen demand (COD), such as chlorine containing compounds. Hazardous, toxic, and carcinogenic finishing chemicals are being replaced with less hazardous, nontoxic, and non carcinogenic chemicals. Biodegradable finishes are becoming more common.
In addition, changes in technology and good operating practices that ensure that fabrics
Are finished correctly limit excess use of chemicals, water and energy and minimize environmental impact. Many finishers have preliminary treatment facilities on site so that they reclaim and reuse chemicals and remove contaminants before discharging waste to municipal systems. Membrane technology and reverse osmosis provide effective means of producing high quality discharge by separating salts, metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants before water leaves the finishing plant’s treatment facility.
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